La normalisation dans le plan quinquennal chinois

Intervention faite par Klaus Ziegler, expert délégué à la normalisation européenne en Chine, dans le cadre d’un projet financé par l’Europe pour améliorer la visibilité de la normalisation chinoise et entamer une coopération Europe/Chine.

Quelques points retenus par une non-spécialiste de la question dans un exposé dense, qui mettait également l’accent sur des aspects sectoriels non relevés ici.

La Chine est un pays communiste, soit un pays où le plan quinquennal, document politique et de référence, joue un rôle fondamental. Émanant de la présidence, il donne une direction à tous les ministres et à toutes les provinces, et sert à mesurer les objectifs politiques atteints.

La normalisation est la clef de voûte de la politique industrielle chinoise. Mais la Chine est un pays où « le passage au siècle suivant doit se faire avec une efficacité supérieure que dans  les autres pays » (elle doit faire en 5 ans ce que l’Europe a fait en 20 ans), et où les ingénieurs ont toujours joué un rôle politique, d’où le poids de la norme dans ce pays, d’où l’intérêt aussi de se pencher sur cette question.

Dans le 12e plan quinquennal, la norme est utilisée pour se débarrasser des technologies obsolescentes, dangereuses ou tout simplement à risques, soit d’un « passé encombrant », et pour mettre l’accent sur les industries stratégiques (afin d’injecter  des TIC dans toute l’industrie, rendre l’économie plus verte et l’urbanisation durable (construction écologisée), soit trois objectifs généraux majeurs).

  • Exemple. Dans le secteur du transport, l’accent est mis sur les carburants non fossiles pour reprendre des parts de marché sur le marché automobile national où, malgré des efforts importants, le pourcentage des voitures chinoises vendues en Chine continue à décroître. L’électricité doit lui permettre de se redresser en promouvant des voitures électriques (pour les centres villes, ce  sera une contrainte), avec l’aide de l’Europe via des joint ventures sur des questions comme l’efficacité énergétique du moteur, allié à des investissements pour la création d’un réseau de production nationale électrique (alimentation pour véhicules électriques).

Les normes chinoises sont sous le contrôle du gouvernement et non de l’industrie. Les normes obligatoires font partie du cadre législatif du pays (15% des normes sont des quasi lois). La normalisation sert à soutenir l’industrie, à la surveiller et à contrôler l’accès au marché, soit une vision différente de celles des autres pays pour qui elle est surtout un facteur d’innovation (est-ce aussi sûr ?).

La Chine dispose d’un nombre considérable de normes (des centaines de milliers, soit 4 à 5 fois plus qu’en Europe). Mais le système, trop complexe, se traduit par un paysage chaotique, en dépit des efforts faits pour supprimer les normes soutenant des technologies obsolètes ou incompatibles avec des normes internationales. Par ailleurs, même si le plan quinquennal donne des indications sur les axes politiques, le système demeure opaque et complexe.

Le marché intérieur chinois est fragmenté. La surveillance du marché est totalement décentralisée, la mise en œuvre des normes n’est donc pas uniforme et cette tendance s’accélère. Puisqu’en Europe de gros efforts sont faits pour réduire la fragmentation, les lignes européennes ont plus d’unité qu’un Chine, pays très décentralisé pour tout ce qui n’a pas trait à la sécurité du pays.

En dehors de quelques produits jugés importants, il n’y a pas de surveillance efficace de l’application des normes (l’Etat ne s’implique pas). Sachant, par exemple, que l’urbanisation est la priorité dans ce pays (50% des constructions dans le monde le sont en Chine), ce sont les maires qui peuvent jouer un rôle majeur pour inciter les petites entreprises à se conformer  aux normes dans le domaine de la construction. Ce qui est encore du volontariat doit se transformer en contrainte : mais quand y parviendra-t-on ? On note aussi que certaines catastrophes, comme l’accident du chemin de fer à Shanghaï, lié à un problème de sécurité, aura des conséquences politiques et techniques qui feront progresser ce dossier.

Pour faire évoluer les normes, l’accent doit être donc être mis sur l’évaluation de la conformité des applications, alors qu’aujourd’hui, en cas de conflit de normes, une institution qui a collaboré à la création d’une norme ne peut même pas intervenir.

La Chine tend encore à privilégier le développement à la sécurité, ce qui est coûteux pour les industriels chinois qui doivent supporter les conséquences lorsqu’un problème lié à la sécurité apparaît.

La Chine veut participer à l’élaboration des normes au niveau international. Mais la Chine présente une faiblesse linguistique (les normes chinoises, écrites en chinois,  ne sont connues que de ceux qui importent[1]) et culturelle (les Chinois participent peu aux discussions).

La Chine, une zone d’influence. Des pays, comme la Thaïlande, qui avaient adopté le système européen, se tournent  vers  normes chinoises (pour des raisons pratiques). La Chine a noué un partenariat  efficace dans le domaine des télécommunications avec le Japon et la Corée[2].

En Chine, la normalisation est intégrée dans le système éducatif. Contrairement aux USA, la Chine ressent le besoin, d’avoir du personnel sensibilisé au rôle de la normalisation et donc ressources humaines formées à l’échelle internationale dans le domaine de la normalisation. En Europe, une décision est nécessaire pour s’emparer de cette question.

Pour l’Europe, la norme volontaire, non obligatoire, est une réponse à donner par l’industrie aux besoins de l’industrie.

C’est un concept difficile à comprendre par la Chine  où la dimension politique joue encore un rôle majeur.

Illustr. No Obstructing. Xiaming. Flickr Cc by-nc-sa


[1] Des projets de traduction, néanmoins,…  lorsque les problèmes de droits auront été levés.

[2] Mais le Japon a son propre système de normalisation, différent des normes internationales et européennes.

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