Payer pour consulter internet dans un cadre professionnel ?

C’est la conclusion étonnante qui pourrait être tirée de la décision d’une Cour d’appel britannique.

Les faits

Meltwater, prestataire de veille, envoie à ses clients les références et les premières lignes d’une série d’articles, des mots-clés, ainsi que le lien permettant de consulter les articles dans leur intégralité sur le web.

Selon la Newspaper Licensing Agency (NLA), organisme délivrant des licences pour utiliser la presse au Royaume-Uni, des droits sont également requis pour les liens figurant dans les livrables envoyés par Meltwater à chacun de ses clients pour accéder à des articles, par ailleurs librement accessibles sur le web. Meltwater aurait pu augmenter ses tarifs et faire ainsi porter le coût supplémentaire à ses clients. Mais, considérant qu’il y a, dans ce cas, une dérive dans l’interprétation du droit d’auteur (en l’occurrence du Copyright, puisque l’affaire a lieu au Royaume-Uni), l’entreprise a choisi de faire un procès.

Pour la Cour d’appel britannique, sans autorisation expresse, les clients violent le droit d’auteur lorsqu’ils cliquent sur les liens menant vers les articles retenus [1] pour eux par le service de veille. Par extension, doit-on imaginer que l’on viole le droit d’auteur dès lors qu’on lit une page web dans un cadre professionnel ?

Lien = copie ?

Lorsqu’on accède à une page web, une copie se fait automatiquement, mais de manière provisoire, sur son serveur. Puisque les conditions générales d’utilisation (CGU) des sites web n’autorisent généralement qu’une copie à des fins personnelles et non commerciales [2], il faudrait, selon le juge de la Cour d’appel, une autorisation expresse pour lire ces pages web dans un cadre professionnel.

La copie technique, transitoire, provisoire et accessoire, fait pourtant partie des exceptions au droit d’auteur. S’il est vrai qu’elle ne doit pas avoir non plus de signification  économique [3], elle n’en a pas pour le client, dans la mesure où ce procédé ne vise qu’à faciliter la consultation en ligne. Elle n’en pas non plus pour le prestataire lorsque des copies intermédiaires d’un procédé technique les font apparaître et disparaître automatiquement. C’est ce que la Cour de justice européenne a affirmé dans l’arrêt Infopaq, dans un procès opposant un service de veille danois à des éditeurs de presse.

De toute manière, la nature, commerciale ou non, dans le cadre du lequel le procédé technique est mis en œuvre n’a aucun impact. Il doit être provisoire, transitoire accessoire, et faciliter la circulation sur les réseaux. Le considérant 33 de la directive européenne sur le droit d’auteur ayant imposé cette exception évoquait la facilitation de la consultation en ligne et, parmi les usages couverts par cette exception, notamment la copie cache et la navigation (browsing).

Une aberration ?

« Sans autorisation contractuelle ad hoc, les copies temporaires créées par le navigateur sont des contrefaçons », affirme la Cour d’appel.

Sur son blog, Meltwater pointe une série d’absurdités. Il est impossible, bien sûr, de connaître les conditions d’utilisation du site web avant d’avoir cliqué sur le lien. Et après, il est trop tard. Vous connaissez le site ? Oui, mais les conditions d’utilisation ont pu changer entre temps. En outre, non seulement les CGU ne sont pas toujours faciles à trouver, mais la notion d’usage non commercial est loin d’être claire[4], la consultation de sites dans un cadre professionnel couvre de multiples cas, et la distinction entre le cadre professionnel et le cadre privé est de plus en plus floue.

Une réponse à un modèle économique

La fourniture du lien est l’un des services payé par le client à la société Meltwater. Ce sont des impératifs économiques qui ont poussé la NLA, au nom des éditeurs de presse, à faire payer la consultation en ligne des articles par les clients. Le juge a, par ailleurs, cherché dans le caractère original des titres et des extraits d’articles (soit les premières lignes de l’article et les séries de mot-clés y figurant avec les 10 mots qui les entourent), d’autres fondements à leurs exigences financières.

La réponse est dans le contrat, et non dans une interprétation de la  loi. En lisant attentivement les articles, on note que Meltwater était prêt à payer des droits, mais à des conditions raisonnables: « we are doing everything to prevent the clients of Meltwater from having to pay copyright licenses for articles that they themselves can read freely on the internet or, if license fees do have to be paid, to keep the cost to a reasonable level.

Quoi qu’il en soit, cette affaire, de plus en plus étonnante, est portée en cassation.

A suivre …

L’article de The 1709 Blog, signalé par Barbara Stratton, mettait l’accent sur un autre aspect du procès : la protection du titre par le droit d’auteur.

Commentaires après la décision prise en 1ère instance
Des droits d’auteur pour un service d’agrégation de liens,
Paralipomènes, 13 décembre 2010

Illustr. CK-CO 180 World Bank Photo Collecion. Flickr CC by-nc-nd

Sources :

Bently slams « very disappointing » ruling in Meltwater, The IPKat, 27 Jul 2011

Meltwater in hot water over business model, The IPKat, 27 July 2011

Clippings ruling could derail much online publishing, says expert, Kim Walker, Out-Law, 28 Jul 2011

UK ruling makes internet browsing a copyright risk, rendering innocent acts of millions illegal, Jorn Lyseggen, Meltwater, 29 Jul 2011

Décision : The Newspaper Licensing Agency Ltd & Ors v Meltwater Holding BV & Ors [2011] EWCA Civ 890 (27 July 2011)

Notes

[1] http://www.out-law.com/page-12116

[2] Le site Out-Law se bornant à interdire la vente de ses articles et à rappeler que les mentions d’auteur doivent être indiquées, contourne ce piège. La notion d’utilisation non commerciale est particulièrement floue.

[3] Cette exception figure dans tous la loi de tous les pays européens selon les mêmes termes.

[4] Vous avez le droit d’utiliser ces contenus… sauf à des fins commerciales ? Anne-Laure Stérin et Michèle Battisti, Documentaliste-Sciences de l’information, 2001, n°3

2 comments

  1. […] => Payer pour consulter internet dans un cadre professionnel ?. 20/11/2011. «C’est la conclusion étonnante qui pourrait être tirée de la décision d’une Cour d’appel britannique (…).» Source : paralipomenes.net/wordpress/archives/6298 […]

  2. […] Payer pour consulter internet dans un cadre professionnel ? Two of Canada’s top universities will have to pay to allow their students to share hyperlinks to copyrighted material, something that some say may require ongoing e-mail surveillance, following a recent copyright agreement that has caused an uproar online. At the end of last month, the University of Toronto and the University of Western Ontario entered into a licensing agreement with Access Copyright , a non-profit group that represents copyright holders. The agreement states that both universities will have to pay $27.50 per full-time student to create copies of copyrighted material, including copies made by sending e-mails and posting hyperlinks to digital copies. […]

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